Accounting policies
The accounting policies applied in these consolidated financial statements are, besides the aforementioned accounting policies to be adopted for the first time in 2016, fundamentally the same as those used for the year ended 31 December 2015. These consolidated financial statements are based on the financial statements of the parent company and its consolidated subsidiaries prepared in accordance with the standard accounting policies applicable throughout the KION Group.
Revenue is the fair value of the consideration received for the sale of products and services and rental and lease income (excluding VAT) after deduction of trade discounts and rebates. In accordance with IAS 18, revenue is recognised when it is sufficiently probable that a future economic benefit will accrue to the entity and that it can be reliably measured. Other criteria may arise, depending on each individual transaction, such as:
Sale of goods
With the exception of items classified as ‘sale with risk’, revenue from the sale of goods is recognised when the KION Group delivers goods to a customer, the risks and rewards incidental to the ownership of the goods sold are substantially transferred to the customer and the flow of benefits to the Group is considered to be sufficiently probable. If a customer is expected to accept goods but has yet to do so, the corresponding revenue is only recognised when the goods are accepted. Appropriate provisions are recognised for risks relating to the sale of goods.
Rendering of services
Revenue from the rendering of services is recognised in the year in which the services are rendered. For services provided over several periods, revenue is recognised in accordance with the proportion of the total services rendered in each period (stage of completion). Revenue from long-term service agreements is therefore recognised on the basis of the average term of the service agreements and in line with progressive costs (constant margin).
Revenue from financial service transactions is recognised in the amount of the sale value of the leased asset if classified as a finance lease and in the amount of the lease payments if classified as an operating lease. If industrial trucks are first sold to and then leased back from a finance partner to refinance leases, the selling margin in connection with an operating lease sub-lease is deferred and recognised as revenue in profit or loss over the term of the refinancing. As part of the financial services provided by the Group, industrial trucks are also sold to finance partners who then enter into leases directly with the end customer (‘indirect end customer finance’). If significant risks and rewards remain with the KION Group as a result of an agreed residual value guarantee that accounts for more than 10 per cent of the asset’s value or as a result of an agreed customer default guarantee (‘sale with risk’), the proceeds from the sale are deferred and recognised as revenue on a straight-line basis over the term until the residual value guarantee or the default guarantee expires.
Revenue from construction contracts is recognised according to the stage of completion (percentage-of-completion method).
Interest income and royalties
Interest income is recognised pro rata temporis in accordance with the effective interest method. Income from royalties is deferred in accordance with the substance of the relevant agreements and recognised pro rata temporis.
Information on the deferral of lease income is contained in the disclosures on the accounting treatment of leases.
Cost of sales
The cost of sales comprises the cost of goods and services sold and includes directly attributable material and labour costs as well as directly attributable overheads, including depreciation of production equipment and amortisation of certain intangible assets, as well as write-downs of inventories. Cost of sales also includes additions to warranty provisions, which are recognised in the amount of the estimated cost at the date on which the related product is sold.
Financial income and expenses
Financial income and expenses mainly consist of interest expenses on financial liabilities, interest income from financial receivables, interest income from leases and the interest cost on leases, exchange rate gains and losses on financial activities and the net interest cost of the defined benefit obligation.
Interest income and expenses are recognised in profit and loss in accordance with the effective interest method. The effective interest method is used for calculating the amortised cost of a financial asset or financial liability and the allocation of interest income and interest expenses over the relevant periods.
Dividends are recognised in income when a resolution on distribution has been passed. They are reported in the consolidated income statement under other income, provided they are dividends from subsidiaries carried at cost.
Goodwill has an indefinite useful life and is not amortised. Instead, it is tested for impairment in accordance with IAS 36 (‘Impairment of Assets’) at least once a year, and more frequently if there are indications that the asset might be impaired.
Impairment testing for goodwill is performed at the level of the individual cash-generating units (CGUs) or groups of CGUs. A CGU is defined as the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets. CGUs are generally based on the lowest level of an entity at which – for internal management purposes – the management systematically monitors and controls the goodwill. However, a CGU may not be larger than an operating segment as defined in IFRS 8 ‘Operating Segments’.
For the purposes of internal and external reporting, the activities of the KION Group are broken down into the Industrial Trucks & Services, Supply Chain Solutions and Corporate Services segments. The 2016 forecast, the budget for 2017, the medium-term planning for 2018 to 2019 and the KION Group’s internal projections for 2020 to 2021 were drawn up on the basis of this reporting structure.
The CGUs identified for the purposes of testing goodwill and brand names for impairment equate to the following operating units treated as independent CGUs: LMH EMEA, STILL EMEA, KION APAC, KION Americas, Dematic and Egemin Automation.
The recoverable amount of a CGU is determined by calculating its value in use on the basis of the discounted cash flow method. The cash flows forecast for the next five years are included in the calculation for the impairment test in accordance with IAS 36.33(b). The financial forecasts are based on assumptions relating to the development of the global economy, commodity prices and exchange rates. Cash flows beyond the five-year planning horizon were extrapolated for the LMH EMEA, STILL EMEA, KION APAC, KION Americas, Dematic and Egemin Automation CGUs using a growth rate of 0.5 per cent (2015: 1.0 per cent).
CGU cash flows are discounted using a weighted average cost of capital (WACC) that reflects current market assessments of the specific risks to individual CGUs. The underlying capital structure for the LMH EMEA, STILL EMEA, KION APAC and KION Americas CGUs is determined by comparing peer group companies in the same sector. The beta factor derived from this peer group was 1.00 (2015: 1.07). Yield curve data from the European Central Bank (three-month average, rounded) was used to determine the risk-free interest rate; as at 1 November 2016 the rate was 0.6 per cent (1 November 2015: 1.5 per cent). The market risk premium derived from empirical studies of the capital markets was set at 7.0 per cent (2015: 7.0 per cent) and was at the upper end of the band recommended by the technical committee for business valuation and administration (FAUB) of the German Institute of Auditors (IDW), which is 5.5 per cent to 7.0 per cent. The implied return on equity was 7.6 per cent, which was slightly lower than in the previous year (2015: 8.5 per cent). The assumed country risk was 0.16 per cent for the LMH EMEA CGU, 0.21 per cent for the STILL EMEA CGU, 0.78 per cent for the KION APAC CGU and 1.67 per cent for the KION Americas CGU. A leverage ratio of 25.8 per cent (2015: 25.7 per cent) was calculated based on the capital structure determined for the peer group.
A leveraged beta of 0.88 (2015: 0.95) was used to determine the country-specific WACC for Dematic and Egemin Automation on the basis of the sector-specific peer group. The risk-free interest rate for the US as at 1 November 2016 was 2.5 per cent; the country-specific risk premium for the US was set at 0.15 per cent. The risk-free interest rate for Belgium as at 1 November 2016 was 0.6 per cent (1 November 2015: 1.5 per cent); the country-specific risk premium for Belgium was set at 0.15 per cent (1 November 2015: 0.5 per cent). The WACC before tax, which is used to discount the estimated cash flows, was calculated at 9.1 per cent for LMH EMEA, 9.2 per cent for STILL EMEA, 9.6 per cent for KION APAC, 11.2 per cent for KION Americas, 10.4 per cent for Dematic and 9.5 per cent for Egemin Automation. The WACC after tax was 6.5 per cent for LMH EMEA, 6.6 per cent for STILL EMEA, 7.2 per cent for KION APAC, 7.7 per cent for KION Americas, 7.4 per cent for Dematic and 6.8 per cent for Egemin Automation.
The impairment test carried out in December 2016 did not reveal any need to recognise impairment losses for the existing goodwill recognised for the LMH EMEA, STILL EMEA, KION APAC, KION Americas, Dematic and Egemin Automation CGUs. Sensitivity analysis has enabled us to determine that no impairment losses need to be recognised for goodwill, even if key assumptions vary within realistic limits, in particular a variation in WACC of plus or minus 100 basis points.
Other intangible assets
Other purchased intangible assets with a finite useful life are carried at historical cost less all accumulated amortisation and all accumulated impairment losses. If events or market developments suggest impairment has occurred, impairment tests are carried out on the carrying amount of items classified as other intangible assets with a finite useful life. The carrying amount of an asset is compared with its recoverable amount, which is defined as the higher of its value in use and its fair value less costs to sell. If the reasons for recognising impairment losses in the past no longer apply, the relevant impairment losses are reversed, but subject to a limit such that the carrying amount of the asset is no higher than its amortised cost.
Other intangible assets with an indefinite useful life are carried at cost and are mainly capitalised brand names. Brand names are not amortised because they have been established in the market for a number of years and there is no foreseeable end to their useful life. In accordance with IAS 36, they are tested for impairment at least once a year or whenever there are indications that the asset might be impaired. The impairment test is performed in the same way as the impairment test for goodwill. Assessments of indefinite useful life are carried out in every period.
Development costs are capitalised if the following can be demonstrated:
- the technical feasibility of the intangible asset;
- the intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it;
- the ability to use or sell the intangible asset;
- the likelihood that the intangible asset will generate future economic benefits;
- the availability of adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the intangible asset; and
- the ability to reliably measure the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development.
Capitalised development costs include all costs and overheads directly attributable to the development process. Once they have been initially capitalised, these costs and internally generated intangible assets – particularly internally generated software – are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Internally generated intangible assets are not qualifying assets so finance costs are not capitalised. All non-qualifying development costs are expensed as incurred and reported in the income statement under research and development costs together with research costs. From 2016, the amortisation expense on capitalised development costs has been reported under cost of sales. The prior-year figures have been restated. As a result, the cost of sales rose by €53.3 million. Research and development costs declined by the same amount.
Amortisation of intangible assets with a finite useful life is recognised on a straight-line basis and reported under functional costs. The impairment losses on intangible assets are reported under other expenses.
The useful lives shown in > TABLE 050 are applied in determining the carrying amounts of other intangible assets.
Useful life of other intangible assets
Customer relationships / client base
4 – 15
10 – 15
5 – 7
Patents and licences
3 – 15
2 – 10
Leases / short-term rentals
KION Group entities lease equipment, mainly various industrial trucks, to their customers in order to promote sales. The leases may be of a long-term nature (leasing) or a short-term nature (short-term rental) .
Entities in the KION Group enter into leases as lessors and as lessees. In line with IAS 17, these contracts are classified as finance leases if substantially all of the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the leased / rental asset are transferred to the lessee. All other rentals and leases are classified as operating leases, again in accordance with IAS 17.
If a KION Group entity enters into a finance lease as the lessor, the future lease payments to be made by the customer are recognised as lease receivables at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease. Interest income is allocated to each reporting period in order to ensure a constant return on the outstanding net investment in the lease.
If the beneficial ownership of leased assets remains with a KION Group entity as the lessor under an operating lease, the assets are reported as leased assets in a separate item in the statement of financial position. The leased assets are carried at cost and depreciated on a straight-line basis over the term of the underlying leases.
To fund leases, industrial trucks are regularly sold to leasing companies. The industrial trucks are then leased back to entities in the Industrial Trucks & Services segment (head lease), who sub-lease them to external end customers (described below as ‘sale and leaseback sub-leases’). These long-term leases generally have a term of four to five years. If, in the case of sale and leaseback sub-leases, the risks and rewards incidental to the head lease are substantially borne by entities in the Industrial Trucks & Services segment, the corresponding assets are reported as leased assets within non-current assets. These leased assets are reported in the statement of financial position at the lower of the present value of the minimum lease payments and fair value. However, if substantially the risks and rewards incidental to the head lease are transferred to the end customer, a corresponding lease receivable is recognised. In both cases, the funding items for these long-term customer leases, which are funded for terms that match those of the leases, are recognised as lease liabilities.
Rental assets are assets resulting from short-term rentals as well as industrial trucks in relation to which significant risks and rewards remain with the KION Group despite the trucks having been sold (‘sale with risk’).
In the case of short-term rentals, entities in the Industrial Trucks & Services segment rent industrial trucks to customers directly. Short-term rental agreements usually have a term of one day to one year. The risks and rewards remain substantially with the entities in the Industrial Trucks & Services segment. The industrial trucks are carried at cost and depreciated on a straight-line basis over the normal useful life of between five and seven years, depending on the product group. If a sale-and-leaseback arrangement is in place for refinancing purposes, the assets are reported in the statement of financial position at the lower of the present value of the minimum rental payments and fair value.
In an indirect end customer finance arrangement, industrial trucks are sold to finance partners who then enter into leases with end customers. If entities in the Industrial Trucks & Services segment provide material residual value guarantees or a customer default guarantee (‘sale with risk’), these transactions, which are classified as sale agreements under civil law, are recognised in accordance with the provisions relating to lessors with operating leases in conjunction with the IFRS principles for revenue recognition. In this case, the trucks are recognised as assets in the statement of financial position at their cost on the date of the sale and written down to their guaranteed residual value, or zero, on a straight-line basis over the period until the residual value guarantee or the customer default guarantee expires. If the KION Group provides a residual value guarantee, an amount equivalent to the residual value obligation is recognised under other financial liabilities.
Other property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment is carried at cost less straight-line depreciation and impairment losses. The cost of internally generated machinery and equipment includes all costs directly attributable to the production process and an appropriate portion of production overheads. This includes production-related depreciation and proportionate costs for administration and social insurance / employee benefits.
The cost of property, plant and equipment is reduced by the amount of any government grants received, provided the relevant requirements are met. Expenses for maintenance and repairs are recognised in income to the extent that they are not required to be capitalised. Borrowing costs are capitalised for certain items of property, plant and equipment whose acquisition or production exceeds one year as soon as the definition of a qualifying asset is met. As was the case in the previous year, there were no qualifying assets in 2016.
Depreciation of property, plant and equipment is recognised on a straight-line basis and reported under functional costs. The useful lives and depreciation methods are reviewed annually and adjusted to reflect changes in conditions.
The useful lives below are applied in determining the carrying amounts of items of property, plant and equipment. > TABLE 051
Useful life of other property, plant and equipment
10 – 50
Plant and machinery
3 – 15
Office furniture and equipment
2 – 15
KION Group companies also lease property, plant and equipment for their own use using finance leases, which are recognised as other property, plant and equipment. In this case, the lower of the fair value and present value of future lease payments is recognised at the inception of the lease. A corresponding liability to the lessor is recognised under other financial liabilities in the statement of financial position.
Property, plant and equipment covered by finance leases is depreciated over the shorter of its useful life or the term of the lease, unless title to the leased assets passes to the lessee when the lease expires, in which case the property, plant and equipment is depreciated and the other financial liabilities are reversed over the useful life of the leased assets.
The difference between total finance lease liabilities and the fair value of the financed leased assets represents the finance charge which is recognised in the income statement over the term of the lease at a constant rate of interest on the outstanding balance in each period. At the end of the lease term, the leased assets are either returned or purchased, or the contract is extended.
If there are certain indications of impairment of the property, plant and equipment, the assets are tested for impairment by comparing the residual carrying amount of the assets with their recoverable amount, which is defined as the higher of value in use and fair value less costs to sell. If the residual carrying amount is greater than the recoverable amount, an impairment loss is recognised for an asset. The impairment losses on property, plant and equipment are reported under other expenses.
The KION Group calculates the recoverable amount primarily on the basis of value in use. In determining value in use, the expected future cash flows are discounted using a risk-adjusted discount rate, taking into account the current and future level of earnings and segment-specific, technological, economic and general trends.
If an impairment test for an item of property, plant and equipment is performed at the level of a cash-generating unit to which goodwill is allocated and results in the recognition of an impairment loss, first the goodwill and, subsequently, the assets must be written down in proportion to their relative carrying amounts. If the reason for an impairment loss recognised in prior years no longer applies, the relevant impairment losses are reversed, but subject to a limit such that the carrying amount of the asset is no higher than its amortised cost. This does not apply to goodwill.
In accordance with the equity method, associates and joint ventures are measured as the proportion of the interest in the equity of the investee. They are initially carried at cost. Subsequently, the carrying amount of the equity investment is adjusted in line with any changes to the KION Group’s interest in the net assets of the investee. The KION Group’s interest in the profit or loss generated after acquisition is recognised in income. Other changes in the equity of associates and joint ventures are recognised in other comprehensive income (loss) in the consolidated financial statements in proportion to the Group’s interest in the associate or joint venture.
If the Group’s interest in the losses made by an associate or joint venture exceeds the carrying amount of the proportionate equity attributable to the Group, no additional losses are recognised. Any goodwill arising from the acquisition of an associate or joint venture is included in the carrying amount of the investment in the associate or joint venture.
If there is evidence that an associate or joint venture may be impaired, the carrying amount of the investment in question is tested for impairment. The carrying amount of the asset is compared with its recoverable amount. If the carrying amount is greater than the recoverable amount, an impairment loss is recognised for the equity investment.
In the consolidated financial statements, current and deferred taxes are recognised on the basis of the tax laws of the jurisdictions involved. Deferred taxes are recognised in other comprehensive income (loss) if they relate to transactions also recognised in other comprehensive income (loss).
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognised in accordance with the liability method for all temporary differences between the IFRS carrying amounts and the tax base, as well as for temporary consolidation measures.
Deferred tax assets also include tax refund claims that arise from the expected utilisation of existing tax loss carryforwards and interest carryforwards in subsequent years and whose utilisation is reasonably certain according to current forecasts. On the basis of this estimate, deferred tax assets have been recognised on some loss carryforwards and interest carryforwards.
Deferred taxes are determined on the basis of the tax rates that will apply at the recovery date, or have been announced, in accordance with the current legal situation in each country concerned. In accordance with the provisions in IAS 12, deferred tax assets and liabilities are not discounted. Deferred tax assets are offset against deferred tax liabilities to the extent that they have the same maturity and relate to the same taxation authority.
Inventories are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. The acquisition costs of raw materials and merchandise are calculated on the basis of an average. The cost of finished goods and work in progress includes direct costs and an appropriate portion of the material and production overheads and production-related depreciation directly attributable to the production process. Administrative costs and social insurance / employee benefits are included to the extent that they are attributable to the production process. Borrowing costs as defined by IAS 23 are not a component of cost as they are not qualifying assets as defined by IAS 23.5. The amount recognised is an average value or a value determined in accordance with the FIFO method.
Net realisable value is the selling price that can be realised less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
Write-downs are recognised for inventory risks resulting from duration of storage, impaired recoverability, etc. If the reasons for the recognition of the write-downs no longer apply, they are reversed, but subject to a limit such that the carrying amount of the asset is no higher than its cost.
Receivables and revenue from construction contracts are recognised according to the stage of completion (percentage-of-completion method). The percentage of completion is the proportion of contract costs incurred up to the reporting date compared to the total estimated contract costs as at the reporting date (cost-to-cost method). Under the percentage-of-completion method, construction contracts are measured at the amount of the contract costs incurred to date plus the pro rata profit earned according to the percentage of completion. If it is probable that the total contract costs will exceed the contract revenue, the expected loss is immediately recognised as an expense in the financial year in which the loss becomes apparent. If the contract costs incurred and the profit and loss recognised exceed the advances received, the excess is recognised as an asset under trade receivables. If the advances received exceed the capitalised costs and recognised profit and loss, the excess is recognised as a liability under other liabilities.
If the outcome of a construction contract cannot be reliably estimated, the likely achievable revenue is recognised up to the amount of the costs incurred. Contract costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred. Variations in the contract work, claims and incentive payments are recognised if they are likely to result in revenue and their amount can be reliably estimated.
In the first period in which they are recognised, trade receivables categorised as loans and receivables (LaR) – with the exception of construction contracts with a net credit balance due from customers – are carried at fair value including directly attributable transaction costs. In subsequent periods they are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Appropriate valuation allowances are recognised for identifiable individual risks. Low-interest or non-interest-bearing receivables due in more than one year are carried at their present value.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash, credit balances with banks and current financial assets that can be transformed into cash at any time and are only subject to a minor level of volatility.
Other financial assets
Primary financial assets are initially recognised and derecognised in the financial statements on their settlement dates.
The KION Group differentiates between financial assets held for trading at fair value through profit or loss (FAHfT), available for sale financial assets (AfS) and financial assets classified as loans and receivables (LaR).
The FAHfT category contains derivative financial instruments that do not form part of a formally documented hedge.
Available-for-sale financial assets (AfS) are carried at fair value. Unrealised gains and losses, including deferred taxes, are reported in other comprehensive income (loss) until they are realised. Equity investments for which no market price is available are carried at cost less impairment losses, as observable fair values are not available and reliable results cannot be obtained using other permitted valuation techniques. At present there is no intention to sell these financial instruments.
In the first period in which they are recognised, financial assets categorised as loans and receivables (LaR) are carried at fair value including directly attributable transaction costs. In subsequent periods they are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Appropriate valuation allowances are recognised for identifiable individual risks. Low-interest or non-interest-bearing receivables due in more than one year are carried at their present value.
Carrying amounts of financial assets are tested for impairment on every reporting date and whenever indications of impairment arise. If there is an objective indication of impairment (such as a borrower being in significant financial difficulties), an impairment loss must be recognised directly in the income statement.
If objective facts in favour of reversing impairment losses are present on the reporting date, reversals are carried out to an appropriate extent. The recognition of reversals must not result in a carrying amount greater than the amortised cost that would have arisen if the impairment loss had not been recognised. In the case of debt instruments classified as available-for-sale financial assets (AfS), reversals of impairment losses are recognised in the income statement.
Derivative financial instruments
Derivative financial instruments are measured at their fair value and are reported as financial assets or financial liabilities as at the reporting date. They are initially recognised and derecognised in the financial statements on their settlement dates.
Currently, derivative financial instruments in the KION Group mainly comprise currency forwards that are used for hedging purposes to mitigate currency risk. The KION Group did not have any interest-rate derivatives as at 31 December 2016, as was also the case at 31 December 2015.
In accordance with IAS 39, all derivative financial instruments must be measured at their fair value irrespective of an entity’s purpose or intention in entering into the derivative contract. The KION Group currently uses cash flow hedges for currency risk as well as one net investment hedge.
In the case of cash flow hedges, derivatives are employed to hedge future cash flow risks from planned transactions and from firm obligations not reported in the statement of financial position. The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives is initially recognised in other comprehensive income (loss) and is subsequently reclassified to the income statement when the corresponding underlying transaction is also recognised. The ineffective portion of the changes in fair value is recognised immediately in the income statement.
A derivative is used as a net investment hedge to hedge the currency risk arising on translation of a foreign subsidiary’s financial statements into the Group’s reporting currency. The effective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is initially recognised in other comprehensive income (loss) and will not be reclassified to the income statement until the foreign operation is sold. The ineffective portion of the changes in fair value is recognised immediately in the income statement.
If the criteria for hedge accounting are not satisfied, changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments are recognised in the income statement.
Retirement benefit obligation
The retirement benefit obligation is calculated in accordance with the projected unit credit method. Future pension obligations are measured on the basis of the pro rata vested benefit entitlements as at the reporting date and discounted to their present value. The calculations include assumptions about future changes in certain parameters, such as expected salary and pension increases and biometric factors affecting the amount of future benefits. Pension provisions are reduced by the fair value of the plan assets used to cover the Group’s benefit obligations. Plan assets are measured at fair value.
Remeasurements, including deferred taxes, are recognised in other comprehensive income (loss). It is not permitted to reclassify remeasurements recognised in other comprehensive income (loss) to profit or loss in future periods. The cost of additions to pension provisions is allocated to functional costs. The interest cost on pension obligations and the interest income from plan assets are netted and reported in net financial income / expenses. Further details can be found in note .
Other provisions are recognised when the Group has a legal or constructive obligation to a third party as the result of a past event that is likely to lead to a future outflow of resources and that can be reliably estimated. Where there is a range of possible outcomes and each individual point within the range has an equal probability of occurring, a provision is recognised in the amount of the mean of the individual points. Measurement is at full cost. Provisions for identifiable risks and contingent liabilities are recognised in the amount that represents the best estimate of the cost required to settle the obligations. Recourse claims are not taken into account. The settlement amount also includes cost increases identifiable as at the reporting date. Provisions with a maturity of more than twelve months are discounted using the standard market interest rate. The discount rate is a before-tax rate that reflects current market expectations for the time value of money and the specific risks inherent in the liability. The interest cost from unwinding the discount is recognised in interest expenses.
Warranty provisions are recognised on the basis of past or estimated future claim statistics. The corresponding expense is recognised in cost of sales at the date on which the revenue is recognised. Individual provisions are recognised for claims that are known to the Group.
Provisions for expected losses from onerous contracts and other business obligations are measured on the basis of the work yet to be performed.
A restructuring provision is recognised when a KION Group entity has prepared a detailed, formal restructuring plan and this plan has raised the valid expectation in those affected that the entity will carry out the restructuring by starting to implement that plan or announcing its main features to those affected by it. The measurement of a restructuring provision only includes the direct expenditures arising from the restructuring and not associated with the ongoing activities of the entity concerned.
IFRS 2 distinguishes between equity-settled and cash-settled share-based payment transactions.
Equity-settled share-based payment transactions are recognised at their fair value at the date of grant. The fair value of the obligation is recognised as an expense under functional costs over the vesting period and offset against capital reserves.
The portion of the fair value of cash-settled share-based payments that is attributable to service provided up to the valuation date is recognised as an expense under functional costs and is also reported as a liability. The fair value is recalculated on each reporting date until the end of the performance period. Any change in the fair value of the obligation must be recognised (pro rata temporis) under expenses.
Financial liabilities and other financial liabilities
The KION Group differentiates between financial liabilities held for trading at fair value through profit or loss (FLHfT) and financial liabilities at amortised cost using the effective interest method (FLaC).
The FLHfT category contains derivative financial instruments that do not form part of a formally documented hedge. These are reported under other financial liabilities and must be carried at fair value through profit or loss.
All other financial liabilities reported under financial liabilities or other financial liabilities must be categorised as FLaC. These liabilities are initially recognised at fair value at the time they are entered into. Directly attributable transaction costs are deducted. These liabilities are then measured at amortised cost. Any differences between historical cost and the settlement amount are recognised in accordance with the effective interest method.
Trade payables are categorised as FLaC and, in the first period in which they are recognised, are carried at fair value net of the directly attributable transaction costs. In subsequent periods, these liabilities are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Low-interest or non-interest-bearing liabilities due in more than one year are carried at their present value.
Assumptions and estimates
The preparation of the IFRS consolidated financial statements requires the use of assumptions and estimates for certain line items that affect recognition and measurement in the statement of financial position and the income statement. The actual amounts realised may differ from estimates. Assumptions and estimates are applied in particular:
- in assessing the need for and the amount of impairment losses on intangible assets, property, plant and equipment, and inventories;
- in determining the useful life of non-current assets;
- in classifying leases;
- in recognising and measuring defined benefit pension obligations and other provisions;
- in recognising and measuring current and deferred taxes;
- in recognising and measuring assets acquired and liabilities assumed in connection with business combinations;
- in evaluating the stage of completion in the case of long-term construction contracts.
Goodwill is tested for impairment annually at the level of the cash-generating units to which goodwill is allocated, applying the budget for 2017 and the medium-term planning for 2018 to 2019 combined with the growth predicted in the market forecasts for the projections for 2020 to 2021 and assuming division-specific growth rates for the period thereafter. Any material changes to these and other factors might result in the recognition of impairment losses. Further information on goodwill can be found earlier in this note and in note .
Information on leases can be found in the sections on leases / short-term rentals, leased assets, rental assets and other property, plant and equipment in this note.
Defined benefit pension obligations are calculated on the basis of actuarial parameters. As differences due to remeasurements are taken to other comprehensive income (loss), any change in these parameters would not affect the net profit for the current period. For further details about sensitivity analysis in relation to the impact of all significant assumptions, please refer to the information about the retirement benefit obligation in note .
The recognition and measurement of other provisions is based on an estimate of the probability of the future outflow of resources, supplemented by past experience and the circumstances known to the Group at the reporting date. Accordingly, the actual outflow of resources for a given event may be different from the amount recognised in other provisions. Further details can be found in note .
Significant estimates are involved in calculating income taxes. These estimates may change on the basis of new information and experience (see also note ). Deferred tax assets on tax loss carryforwards and interest carryforwards are recognised on the basis of an estimate of the future recoverability of the tax benefit, i.e. an assumption as to whether sufficient taxable income or tax relief will be available against which the carryforwards can be utilised. The actual amount of taxable income in future periods, and hence the actual utilisation of tax loss carryforwards and interest carryforwards, may be different from the estimates made when the corresponding deferred tax assets were recognised.
On first-time consolidation of an acquisition, all identifiable assets and liabilities are recognised at their fair value at the acquisition date. The fair values of intangible assets are determined using appropriate valuation techniques. These measurements are based on estimates of future cash flows, expected growth rates, exchange rates, discount rates and useful lives. In the event of material changes to assumptions or circumstances, estimates must be reassessed and this can lead to the recognition of an impairment loss for the asset concerned. For further information on acquisitions, see note .
Construction contracts are accounted for using the percentage-of-completion method based on management estimates of the contract costs incurred. If estimates change, or if there are differences between planned and actual costs, this is directly reflected in the profit or loss from construction contracts. The operating units continually review the cost estimates and adjust them as appropriate. Further information on construction contracts can be found above in this note.
Where necessary, the KION Group’s accounting departments receive assistance from external legal advisors and tax consultants when making the estimates required.
The carrying amounts of the affected line items can be found in the relevant notes/the consolidated statement of financial position.
The impact of a change to an estimate is recognised prospectively when it becomes known and assumptions are adjusted accordingly.