Accounting policies
The accounting policies applied in these consolidated financial statements are, besides the aforementioned accounting policies to be adopted for the first time in 2014, fundamentally the same as those used for the year ended 31 December 2013. These consolidated financial statements are based on the financial statements of the parent company and its consolidated subsidiaries prepared in accordance with the standard accounting policies applicable throughout the KION Group.
Revenue is the fair value received for the sale of products and services and rental and lease income (excluding VAT) after deduction of trade discounts and rebates. In accordance with IAS 18, revenue is recognised when it is sufficiently probable that a future economic benefit will accrue to the entity and that it can be reliably measured. Other criteria may arise, depending on each individual transaction, such as:
Sale of goods
With the exception of items classified as ‘sale with risk’, revenue from the sale of goods is recognised when the KION Group delivers goods to a customer, the goods are accepted by the customer and the flow of benefits to the Group is considered to be probable. If a customer is expected to accept goods but has yet to do so, the corresponding revenue is only recognised when the goods are accepted. Appropriate provisions are recognised for risks relating to the sale of goods. In the case of revenue from agreements classified as ‘sale with risk’, the revenue is recognised pro rata over the term of the agreement. The term ‘sale with risk’ and the corresponding revenue recognition are discussed in the following section and under ‘Rental assets’ below.
Rendering of services
Revenue from the rendering of services is recognised in the year in which the services are rendered. For services provided over several periods, revenue is recognised in accordance with the proportion of the total services rendered in each period (stage of completion). Revenue from long-term service agreements is therefore recognised on the basis of the average term of the service agreements and in line with progressive costs (constant margin).
Revenue from financial service transactions is recognised in the amount of the sales value of the leased asset if classified as a finance lease and in the amount of the lease payments if classified as an operating lease. As part of the financial services provided by the Group, industrial trucks are also sold to finance partners who then enter into leases directly with the end customer (‘indirect end customer finance’). If significant risks and rewards remain with the KION Group as a result of an agreed residual value guarantee that accounts for more than 10 per cent of the asset’s value or as a result of an agreed customer default guarantee (‘sale with risk’), the proceeds from the sale are deferred and recognised as revenue on a straight-line basis over the term until the residual value guarantee or the default guarantee expires.
Interest income and royalties
Interest income is recognised pro rata temporis in accordance with the effective interest method. Income from royalties is deferred in accordance with the substance of the relevant agreements and recognised pro rata temporis.
Information on the deferral of lease income is contained in the disclosures on the accounting treatment of leases.
Cost of sales
The cost of sales comprises the cost of goods and services sold and includes directly attributable material and labour costs as well as directly attributable overheads, including depreciation of production equipment and amortisation of certain intangible assets, as well as write-downs of inventories. Cost of sales also includes additions to warranty provisions, which are recognised in the amount of the estimated cost at the date on which the related product is sold.
Financial income and expenses
Financial income and expenses mainly consist of interest expenses on financial liabilities, interest income from financial receivables, gains and losses on financial instruments recognised through profit or loss, exchange rate gains and losses on financial activities and the interest expenses on pension provisions. The expected return on plan assets relating to pension provisions is also included in financial income.
Interest income and expenses are recognised in profit and loss in accordance with the effective interest method. The effective interest method is used for calculating the amortised cost of a financial asset or financial liability and the allocation of interest income and interest expenses over the relevant periods. The effective interest rate is the interest rate at which the estimated future incoming and outgoing payments (including all fees that are part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums and discounts) are discounted to the net carrying amount of the financial asset or liability over the expected term of the financial instrument.
Dividends are recognised in income when a resolution on distribution has been passed. They are reported in the consolidated income statement under other income, provided they are dividends from subsidiaries carried at amortised cost.
Goodwill has an indefinite useful life and is not amortised. Instead, it is tested for impairment in accordance with IAS 36 (‘Impairment of Assets’) at least once a year, and more frequently if there are indications that the asset might be impaired.
Impairment testing is performed at the level of the individual cash-generating units (CGUs) or groups of CGUs. A CGU is defined as the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets. CGUs are generally based on the lowest level of an entity at which – for internal management purposes – the management systematically monitors and controls the contribution to earnings made by the assets concerned, including goodwill. However, a CGU may not be larger than an operating segment as defined in IFRS 8 ‘Operating Segments’. In particular, CGUs are considered to be clearly defined and independent if the entity’s management has prepared independent forecasts relevant to decision-making for the individual CGUs.
For the purposes of internal and external reporting, the activities of the KION Group are broken down into the LMH, STILL, Financial Services and Other segments on the basis of their characteristics and risk profile. The 2014 forecast, the budget for 2015, the medium-term planning for 2016 to 2017 and the KION Group’s internal projections for 2018 to 2019 were drawn up on the basis of this segment structure.
The relevant CGUs for the purposes of goodwill impairment testing and the CGUs to which brand names have been allocated are the LMH and STILL segments and the KION India Pvt. Ltd., Pune, India CGU (formerly Voltas Material Handling Pvt. Ltd.), which is assigned to the Other segment. The Financial Services segment only generates a finance margin to cover costs and consequently has almost no impact on cash flow and does not earn any material excess profit. As a result, no goodwill from the original purchase price allocation (PPA) was allocated to this CGU when the new segment structure was defined in 2012 in accordance with IAS 36.87.
The recoverable amount of a CGU is determined by calculating its value in use on the basis of the discounted cash flow method. The cash flows forecast for the next five years are included in the calculation for the impairment test in accordance with IAS 36.33(b). The financial forecasts are based on assumptions relating to the development of the global economy, commodity prices and exchange rates. The budget for 2015, the medium-term planning for 2016 to 2017 and the projections for 2018 to 2019 were used to determine the cash flows. Cash flows beyond the five-year planning horizon were extrapolated for the LMH and STILL CGUs using a growth rate of 1.0 per cent (2013: 1.0 per cent). A growth rate of 5.0 per cent (2013: 5.0 per cent) was used for KION India Pvt. Ltd., Pune, India (referred to below as KION India) on a perpetuity basis to take account of forecast trends for the high-growth market of India and the high level of inflation.
CGU cash flows are discounted using a weighted average cost of capital (WACC) that reflects current market assessments of the specific risks to individual CGUs. The underlying capital structure for the LMH and STILL CGUs is determined by comparing peer group companies in the same sector. The beta factor derived from the peer group was 1.09 (2013: 1.07). Yield curve data from the European Central Bank (three-month average, rounded) was used to determine the risk-free interest rate; as at 1 November 2014 the rate was 2.0 per cent (2013: 2.75 per cent). The market risk premium derived from empirical studies of the capital markets was set at 6.75 per cent (2013: 5.75 per cent) and was within the bandwidth recommended by the technical committee for business valuation and administration (FAUB) of the German Institute of Auditors (IDW), which is 5.5 per cent to 7.0 per cent. The market risk premium increased by 1.0 percentage point compared with 2013 owing to the decrease in the risk-free base rate from 2.75 per cent to 2.0 per cent. The inflation forecast for Germany and the implied return on equity remained unchanged year on year at 1.75 per cent and 8.75 per cent respectively. The assumed country risk was 0.25 per cent for the LMH CGU (2013: 0.28 per cent) and 0.42 per cent for the STILL CGU (2013: 0.45 per cent). A leverage ratio of 27.8 per cent (2013: 25.4 per cent) was calculated based on the capital structure determined for the peer group.
A leveraged beta of 1.09 (2013: 1.06) was used to determine the country-specific WACC for KION India. The risk-free interest rate for India as at 1 November 2014 was 7.4 per cent (2013: 8.9 per cent); the country-specific risk premium for India was set at 2.2 per cent (2013: 2.4 per cent). The WACC before tax, which is used to discount the estimated cash flows, was calculated at 10.7 per cent for LMH (2013: 10.5 per cent), 10.9 per cent for STILL (2013: 10.8 per cent) and 15.6 per cent (2013: 16.4 per cent) for KION India. The WACC after tax was 7.7 per cent for LMH (2013: 7.7 per cent), 7.9 per cent for STILL (2013: 7.9 per cent) and 14.1 per cent for KION India (2013: 14.9 per cent).
The impairment test carried out in the fourth quarter of 2014 did not reveal any need to recognise impairment losses for the existing goodwill of the LMH, STILL and KION India CGUs. Based on the results of sensitivity analysis, we do not expect that significant impairment losses will need to be recognised for goodwill, even if key assumptions vary within realistic limits.
Other intangible assets
Other purchased intangible assets with a finite useful life are carried at cost less all accumulated amortisation and all accumulated impairment losses. If events or market developments suggest impairment has occurred, impairment tests are carried out on the carrying amount of items classified as other intangible assets with a finite useful life. The carrying amount of an asset is compared with its recoverable amount, which is defined as the higher of its value in use and its fair value less costs to sell. If the reasons for recognising impairment losses in the past no longer apply, impairment losses not exceeding the amortised cost of the assets are reversed.
Other intangible assets with an indefinite useful life are carried at cost and are mainly capitalised brand names. Brand names are not amortised because they have been established in the market for a number of years and there is no foreseeable end to their useful life. In accordance with IAS 36, they are tested for impairment at least once a year or whenever there are indications that the asset might be impaired. The impairment test is performed in the same way as the impairment test for goodwill. Assessments of indefinite useful life are carried out in every period.
The Voltas brand name at KION India, which is allocated to the Other segment, is subject to a usage right with a contractually limited term and it will therefore be amortised over its useful life.
Development costs are capitalised if the following can be demonstrated:
- the technical feasibility of the intangible asset;
- the intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it;
- the ability to use or sell the intangible asset;
- the likelihood that the intangible asset will generate future economic benefits;
- the availability of adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the intangible asset; and
- the ability to reliably measure the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development.
Capitalised development costs include all costs and overheads directly attributable to the development process. Once they have been initially capitalised, these costs and internally generated intangible assets – particularly internally generated software – are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Internally generated intangible assets are not qualifying assets so finance costs are not capitalised. All non-qualifying development costs are expensed as incurred and reported on the income statement under research and development costs together with research costs and the amortisation on capitalised development costs.
Amortisation of intangible assets with a finite useful life is recognised on a straight-line basis and reported under functional costs. The impairment losses on intangible assets are reported under other expenses.
The following useful lives are applied in determining the carrying amounts of other intangible assets: > TABLE 042
Useful life of other intangible assets
Customer relationships / client base
4 – 10
5 – 7
Patents and licences
3 – 15
2 – 10
Leases / short-term rentals
KION Group entities lease equipment, mainly various industrial trucks, to their customers in order to promote sales. The leases may be of a short-term nature (short-term rental) or long-term nature (leasing).
Entities in the KION Group enter into leases as lessors and as lessees. In line with IAS 17, these contracts are classified as finance leases if substantially all of the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the leased / rental asset are transferred to the lessee. All other rentals and leases are classified as operating leases, again in accordance with IAS 17.
If a KION Group entity enters into a finance lease as the lessor, the future lease payments to be made by the lessee are recognised as lease receivables at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease. Interest income is allocated to each reporting period in order to ensure a constant return on the outstanding net investment in the lease.
If the economic ownership of leased assets remains with a KION Group entity as the lessor under an operating lease, the assets are reported as leased assets in a separate item in the statement of financial position. The leased assets are carried at cost and depreciated over the term of the underlying leases.
To fund leases, industrial trucks are generally sold to leasing companies. The industrial trucks are then leased back to entities in the KION Group (head lease), who sub-lease them to external end customers (described below as ‘sale and leaseback sub-leases’). These long-term leases generally have a term of four to five years. If, in the case of sale and leaseback sub-leases, the risks and rewards incidental to the head lease are substantially borne by KION Group entities and are not transferred to the end customer, the corresponding assets are reported as non-current leased assets. However, if substantially the risks and rewards incidental to the head lease are transferred to the end customer, a corresponding lease receivable is recognised. In both cases, the funding items for these long-term customer leases, which are funded for terms that match those of the leases, are recognised as lease liabilities.
Rental assets are assets resulting from short-term rentals as well as industrial trucks in relation to which significant risks and rewards remain with the KION Group despite the trucks having been sold (‘sale with risk’).
In the case of short-term rentals, LMH and STILL brand companies rent industrial trucks to customers directly. Short-term rental agreements usually have a term of one day to one year. The significant risks and rewards remain with the LMH and STILL brand companies. The industrial trucks are carried at cost and depreciated over the normal useful life of between five and seven years, depending on the product group.
In an indirect end customer finance arrangement, industrial trucks are sold to finance partners who then enter into leases with end customers. If LMH and STILL brand companies provide material residual value guarantees or a customer default guarantee (‘sale with risk’), these transactions, which are classified as sale agreements under civil law, are recognised in accordance with the provisions on lessors with operating leases in conjunction with the IFRS principles for revenue recognition. In this case, the trucks are recognised as assets in the statement of financial position at their cost on the date of the sale and written down to their guaranteed residual value, or zero, on a straight-line basis over the period until the residual value guarantee or the customer default guarantee expires. If the KION Group provides a residual value guarantee, an amount equivalent to the residual value obligation is recognised under other financial liabilities.
Other property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment are carried at cost less straight-line depreciation and impairment losses. The cost of internally generated machinery and equipment includes all costs directly attributable to the production process and an appropriate portion of production overheads. This includes production-related depreciation and proportionate costs for administration and social insurance / employee benefits.
The cost of property, plant and equipment is reduced by the amount of any government grants received. Expenses for maintenance and repairs are recognised in income to the extent that they are not required to be capitalised. Borrowing costs are capitalised for certain items of property, plant and equipment whose acquisition or production exceeds one year as soon as the definition of a qualifying asset is met. As was the case in the previous year, there were no qualifying assets in 2014.
Depreciation of property, plant and equipment is recognised on a straight-line basis and reported under functional costs. The useful lives and depreciation methods are reviewed annually and adjusted to reflect changes in conditions.
The useful lives below are applied in determining the carrying amounts of items of property, plant and equipment. > TABLE 043
Useful life of other property, plant and equipment
10 – 50
Plant and machinery
3 – 15
Office furniture and equipment
2 – 15
KION Group companies also lease property, plant and equipment for their own use using finance leases, which are recognised as other property, plant and equipment. In this case, the lower of the fair value and present value of future lease payments is recognised at the inception of the lease. A corresponding liability to the lessor is recognised under other financial liabilities in the statement of financial position.
Property, plant and equipment covered by finance leases is depreciated over the shorter of its useful life or the term of the lease, unless title to the leased assets passes to the lessee when the lease expires, in which case the property, plant and equipment is depreciated and the other financial liabilities are reversed over the useful life of the leased assets.
The difference between total finance lease liabilities and the fair value of the financed leased assets represents the finance charge which is recognised in the income statement over the term of the lease at a constant rate of interest on the outstanding balance in each period. At the end of the lease term, the leased assets are either returned or purchased, or the contract is extended.
If there are certain indications of impairment of the property, plant and equipment, the assets are tested for impairment by comparing the residual carrying amount of the assets with their recoverable amount, which is defined as the higher of value in use and fair value less costs to sell. If the residual carrying amount is greater than the recoverable amount, an impairment loss is recognised for an asset. The impairment losses on property, plant and equipment are reported under other expenses.
The KION Group calculates the recoverable amount primarily on the basis of value in use. In determining value in use, the expected future cash flows are discounted using a risk-adjusted discount rate, taking into account the current and future level of earnings and segment-specific, technological, economic and general trends.
If an impairment test for an item of property, plant and equipment is performed at the level of a cash-generating unit to which goodwill is allocated and results in the recognition of an impairment loss, first the goodwill and, subsequently, the assets must be written down in proportion to their relative carrying amounts. If the reason for an impairment loss recognised in prior years no longer applies, impairment losses not exceeding the amortised cost of the asset concerned are reversed. This does not apply to goodwill.
In accordance with the equity method, associates and joint ventures are measured as the proportion of the interest in the equity of the investee. They are initially carried at cost. Subsequently, the carrying amount of the equity investment is adjusted in line with any changes to the KION Group’s interest in the net assets of the investee. The KION Group’s interest in the profit or loss generated after acquisition is recognised in income. Other changes in the equity of associates and joint ventures are recognised in other comprehensive income (loss) in the consolidated financial statements in proportion to the Group’s interest in the associate or joint venture.
If the Group’s interest in the losses made by an associate or joint venture exceeds the carrying amount of the proportionate equity attributable to the Group, no additional losses are recognised. Any goodwill arising from the acquisition of an associate or joint venture is included in the carrying amount of the investment in the associate or joint venture.
If there is evidence that an associate or joint venture may be impaired, the carrying amount of the investment in question is tested for impairment. The carrying amount of the asset is compared with its recoverable amount. If the carrying amount is greater than the recoverable amount, an impairment loss is recognised for the equity investment.
In the consolidated financial statements, current and deferred taxes are recognised on the basis of the tax laws of the jurisdictions involved. Deferred taxes are recognised in other comprehensive income (loss) if they relate to transactions also recognised in other comprehensive income (loss).
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognised in accordance with the liability method for all temporary differences between the IFRS carrying amounts and the tax base, as well as for temporary consolidation measures.
Deferred tax assets also include tax refund claims that arise from the expected utilisation of existing tax loss carryforwards and interest carryforwards in subsequent years and whose utilisation is reasonably certain according to current forecasts. On the basis of this estimate, deferred tax assets have been recognised on some loss carryforwards and interest carryforwards.
Deferred taxes are determined on the basis of the tax rates that will apply or have been announced at the realisation date in accordance with the current legal situation in each country concerned. In accordance with the provisions in IAS 12, deferred tax assets and liabilities are not discounted.
Deferred tax assets are offset against deferred tax liabilities to the extent that they have the same maturity and relate to the same taxation authority.
Inventories are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value.
The acquisition costs of raw materials and merchandise are calculated on the basis of an average.
The cost of finished goods and work in progress includes direct costs and an appropriate portion of the material and production overheads and production-related depreciation directly attributable to the production process. Administrative costs and social insurance / employee benefits are included to the extent that they are attributable to the production process. Borrowing costs as defined by IAS 23 are not a component of cost as they are not qualifying assets as defined by IAS 23.4. The amount recognised is an average value or a value determined in accordance with the FIFO method.
Net realisable value is the selling price that can be realised less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
Write-downs are recognised for inventory risks resulting from duration of storage, impaired recoverability, etc. Write-downs are reversed up to a maximum of cost if the reasons for their recognition no longer apply.
In the first period in which they are recognised, trade receivables categorised as loans and receivables (LaR) are carried at fair value including directly attributable transaction costs. In subsequent periods they are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Appropriate valuation allowances are recognised for identifiable individual risks. Low-interest or non-interest-bearing receivables due in more than one year are carried at their present value.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash, credit balances with banks and current financial assets that can be transformed into cash at any time and are only subject to a minor level of volatility.
Other financial assets
Primary financial assets are initially recognised and derecognised in the financial statements on their settlement dates.
Under IAS 39 (‘Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement’), financial assets are classified as financial assets held for trading and carried at fair value through profit and loss (FAHfT), financial assets carried at fair value through profit or loss upon initial recognition (FAFVtPL), available-for-sale financial assets (AfS), financial assets classified as loans and receivables (LaR) or held-to-maturity financial assets (HtM).
As in the previous year, the KION Group did not designate any financial asset as carried at fair value through profit and loss (FAFVtPL) in the reporting year. The FAHfT category contains derivative financial instruments that do not form part of a formally documented hedge.
Available-for-sale financial assets (AfS) are carried at fair value. If they are equity investments for which no market price is available, they are carried at cost. Unrealised gains and losses, including deferred taxes, are reported in other comprehensive income (loss) until they are realised. The equity investments in subsidiaries that are reported in other non-current financial assets are carried at amortised cost less impairment losses, as observable fair values are not available and reliable results cannot be obtained using other permitted measurement techniques. At present there is no intention to sell these financial instruments.
In the first period in which they are recognised, other financial assets categorised as loans and receivables (LaR) are carried at fair value including directly attributable transaction costs. In subsequent periods they are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Appropriate valuation allowances are recognised for identifiable individual risks. Low-interest or non-interest-bearing receivables due in more than one year are carried at their present value.
Carrying amounts of financial assets are tested for impairment on every reporting date and whenever indications of impairment arise. If there is an objective indication of impairment (such as a borrower being in significant financial difficulties), an impairment loss must be recognised directly in the income statement.
If objective facts in favour of reversing impairment losses are present on the reporting date, reversals are carried out to an appropriate extent. Reversals do not exceed the amortised cost that would have arisen if the impairment loss had not been recognised. In the case of debt instruments classified as available-for-sale financial assets (AfS), reversals of impairment losses are recognised in the income statement.
Held-to-maturity financial assets (HtM) are carried at amortised cost less impairment losses in accordance with the effective interest method. As in the previous year, the KION Group did not categorise any financial assets as HtM in the reporting year.
Derivative financial instruments
Derivative financial instruments are measured at their fair value and are reported as financial assets or financial liabilities as at the reporting date. They are initially recognised and derecognised in the financial statements on their settlement dates.
Currently, derivative financial instruments in the KION Group mainly comprise currency forwards that are used for hedging purposes to mitigate currency risk. In addition, the options on the shares in Linde Hydraulics are reported as derivative financial instruments (see note ). In the previous year, the KION Group used interest-rate derivatives to hedge interest-rate risk resulting from loans with variable interest rates in various currencies. Because these loans were repaid in the previous year, there were no longer any material interest-rate derivatives in the KION Group as at 31 December 2013 or in 2014.
In accordance with IAS 39 (Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement), all derivative financial instruments must be measured at their fair value irrespective of an entity’s purpose or intention in entering into the derivative contract. Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments in a formally documented hedge are reported in the income statement (for fair value hedges) or in other comprehensive income (loss) (for cash flow hedges).
The KION Group currently only uses cash flow hedges, mainly for currency risk. In the previous year, cash flow hedges were used for interest-rate risk until the variable-rate loans were repaid.
In the case of cash flow hedges, derivatives are employed to hedge future cash flow risks from planned transactions and from firm obligations not reported in the statement of financial position. The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives is initially recognised in other comprehensive income (loss), and is subsequently reclassified to the income statement when the revenue from the corresponding underlying transaction is realised. The ineffective portion of the changes in fair value is recognised immediately in the income statement.
If the criteria for hedge accounting are not satisfied, changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments are recognised in the income statement.
In the case of hedges of net investments in foreign subsidiaries, the translation risks resulting from investments with a different functional currency are hedged. Unrealised gains and losses on hedging instruments are reported in other comprehensive income (loss) until the company is sold. In the past financial year, as was the case in the previous year, KION Group companies did not enter into any hedges for net investments in foreign subsidiaries.
Retirement benefit obligation
The retirement benefit obligation is calculated in accordance with the projected unit credit method. Future pension obligations are measured on the basis of the pro rata vested benefit entitlements as at the reporting date and discounted to their present value. The calculations include assumptions about future changes in certain parameters, such as expected salary and pension increases and biometric factors affecting the amount of future benefits. Pension provisions are reduced by the fair value of the plan assets used to cover the Group’s benefit obligations. Plan assets are measured at fair value.
Remeasurements, including deferred taxes, are recognised in other comprehensive income (loss). It is not permitted to reclassify remeasurements recognised in other comprehensive income (loss) to profit or loss in future periods. The cost of additions to pension provisions is allocated to functional costs. The interest cost on pension obligations and the interest income from plan assets are netted and reported in net financial income / expenses. Further details can be found in note .
Other provisions are recognised when the Group has a legal or constructive obligation to a third party as the result of a past event that is likely to lead to a future outflow of resources and that can be reliably estimated. Where there is a range of possible outcomes and each individual point within the range has an equal probability of occurring, a provision is recognised in the amount of the mean of the individual points. Measurement is at full cost. Provisions for identifiable risks and contingent liabilities are recognised in the amount that represents the best estimate of the cost required to settle the obligations. Recourse claims are not taken into account. The settlement amount also includes cost increases identifiable as at the reporting date. Provisions with a maturity of more than twelve months are discounted using the standard market interest rate. The discount rate is a before-tax rate that reflects current market expectations for the time value of money and the specific risks inherent in the liability. Accrued interest is recognised in interest expenses.
Warranty provisions are recognised on the basis of past or estimated future claim statistics. The corresponding expense is recognised in cost of sales at the date on which the revenue is recognised. Individual provisions are recognised for claims that are known to the Group.
Provisions for expected losses from onerous contracts and other business obligations are measured on the basis of the work yet to be performed.
A restructuring provision is recognised when a KION Group entity has prepared a detailed, formal restructuring plan and this plan has raised a valid expectation in those affected that the entity will carry out the restructuring by starting to implement that plan or announcing its main features to those affected by it. The measurement of a restructuring provision only includes the direct expenditures arising from the restructuring and not associated with the ongoing activities of the entity concerned.
IFRS 2 distinguishes between equity-settled and cash-settled share-based payment transactions.
Equity-settled share-based payment transactions are recognised at their fair value at the date of grant. The fair value of the obligation is recognised as an expense under functional costs over the vesting period and offset against capital reserves.
The portion of the fair value of cash-settled share-based payments that is attributable to service provided up to the valuation date is recognised as an expense under functional costs and is also reported as a liability. The fair value is recalculated on each reporting date until the end of the performance period. Any change in the fair value of the obligation must be recognised (pro rata temporis) under expenses.
Financial liabilities and other financial liabilities
These liabilities are initially recognised at fair value at the time they are entered into. Directly attributable transaction costs are deducted for all financial liabilities that are not subsequently designated as at fair value through profit or loss (FLaC). These liabilities are then measured at amortised cost. Any differences between historical cost and the settlement amount are recognised in accordance with the effective interest method.
Other financial liabilities also include derivative financial instruments. Derivative liabilities that do not form part of a formally documented hedge must be categorised as FLHfT and carried at fair value through profit or loss.
Trade payables are categorised as FLaC and, in the first period in which they are recognised, are carried at fair value net of the directly attributable transaction costs. In subsequent periods, these liabilities are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Low-interest or non-interest-bearing liabilities due in more than one year are carried at their present value.
Assumptions and estimates
The preparation of the IFRS consolidated financial statements requires the use of assumptions and estimates for certain line items that affect recognition and measurement in the statement of financial position and the income statement. The actual amounts realised may differ from estimates. Assumptions and estimates are applied in particular:
- in assessing the need for and the amount of impairment losses on intangible assets, property, plant and equipment, and inventories;
- in determining the useful life of non-current assets;
- in classifying leases;
- in measuring options;
- in the recognition and measurement of defined benefit pension obligations, provisions for tax, and other provisions; and
- in assessing the recoverability of deferred tax assets.
Goodwill is tested for impairment annually at the level of the cash-generating units to which goodwill is allocated, applying the budget for 2015 and the medium-term planning for 2016 to 2017 combined with the growth predicted in the market forecasts for the projections for 2018 to 2019 and assuming division-specific growth rates for the period thereafter. Any material changes to these and other factors might result in the recognition of impairment losses. Further information on goodwill can be found earlier in this note and in note .
Information on leases can be found in the sections on leases / short-term rentals, leased assets, rental assets and other property, plant and equipment in this note.
Defined benefit pension obligations are calculated on the basis of actuarial parameters. As differences due to remeasurements are taken to other comprehensive income (loss), any change in these parameters would not affect the net profit for the current period. For further details about sensitivity analysis in relation to the impact of all significant assumptions, please refer to the information about the retirement benefit obligation in note .
Significant estimates are involved in calculating provisions for tax. These estimates may change on the basis of new information and experience (see also note ).
The recognition and measurement of other provisions is based on an estimate of the probability of the future outflow of resources, supplemented by past experience and the circumstances known to the Group at the reporting date. Accordingly, the actual outflow of resources for a given event may be different from the amount recognised in other provisions. Further details can be found in note .
Deferred tax assets on tax loss carryforwards and interest carryforwards are recognised on the basis of an estimate of the future recoverability of the tax benefit, i.e. an assumption as to whether sufficient taxable income or tax relief will be available against which the carryforwards can be utilised. The actual amount of taxable income in future periods, and hence the actual utilisation of tax loss carryforwards and interest carryforwards, may be different from the estimates made when the corresponding deferred tax assets were recognised.
Where necessary, the KION Group’s accounting departments receive assistance from external legal advisors and tax consultants when making the estimates required.
The carrying amounts of the affected line items can be found in the relevant notes / the consolidated statement of financial position.
The impact of a change to an estimate is recognised in profit or loss prospectively when it becomes known and assumptions are adjusted accordingly.